Q 3.2 How are satellites tracked in real time?
Earth stations track satellites by directing their antenna by the difference between the estimated position of the satellite and existing position of the antenna. The method of estimating a satellite’s position depends on the tracking system.
Examples of tracking systems are step-track and monopulse.
Small terminals such as direct-to-home receivers do not require tracking as movement of geostationary satellites is insignificant in relation to beam-width of user terminal antenna. [Beam-width defines the field-of-view of an antenna.]